Glass Jar Butter Churns Page 2
These are a selection of Universal butter churns made by Landers, Frary & Clark, located in New Britain, Connecticut. They have a clamp on the base to attach them to a counter or table. The gears are mounted horizontal in the lid and the cranking motion is also in a horizontal plane. They came in four sizes with either metal or glass containers. The glass butter churn pictured second from the left is a No. 25, which was advertised as having a 3 pint churning capacity. The glass churns also came in a size No. 15 (1 1/2 pints), 35 (4 pints) and 45 (5 pints). The glass jar will be embossed UNIVERSAL CHURN along with the model number and the company name and city. The three metal churns are stenciled UNIVERSAL BUTTER MERGER AND FAMILY CHURN along with the model number. The butter churn on the left is a No. 115, the smallest size, the third churn from the left is a No. 135 and the churn on the right is a No. 145, which was the largest size. The metal churns also came in a size No. 125. They are all embossed PAT'S. APPLIED FOR on the tops however the three metal churns are also embossed G.R. PAT. 636801 OCT. 1, 1915. This cannot be a United States patent as the U.S. Patent Office issued no patents on October 1, 1915. Possibly this was a European patent number. A U.S. patent was issued for these churns on April 4, 1916. It was granted to Alonzo Warner of New Britain, Connecticut and he assigned it to Landers, Frary & Clark. We have never seen this patent date marked on these butter churns however.
Although the mechanism and dashers are the same for the glass container and the tin container versions, it is interesting that the glass model is referred to as a churn and the tin model carries the title butter merger. Butter mergers were designed to combine one pound of softened butter with one pound (about a pint) of milk. This produced a spreadable product with much less cost and butter fat. The instructions for the metal models did say they would churn butter from cream also. Possibly this difference had to do with the timing of their introduction to the market. We know that the glass models were offered for sale as early as 1914 and the metal models must have been after that since they carry a 1915 date. One 1916 hardware catalog listed the glass churns in the two smaller sizes and the metal churns in the two larger sizes. The metal churns were heavily advertised in 1918. Merging of milk and butter was common during the food shortages of World War I. It is possible that the introduction of the tin container units coincided with the war and the name was chosen because of the popularity of merging milk and butter at that time. An April 1918 advertisement for the metal butter mergers did mention conservation of food supplies for the war effort. A 1917 hardware catalog listed the prices of the glass churns at $1.50 for the No. 15, $2.00 for the No. 25, $2.50 for the No. 35 and $3.00 for the No. 45. The 1918 ad listed the prices for the metal churns as ranging from $2.50 for the smallest size to $4.00 for the largest size however the war may have influenced those prices. Generally the metal and glass churns were priced similarly.
Landers, Frary & Clark also sold another glass mixer that was similar to the churns. They referred to it as a Mayonnaise Mixer and Cream Whipper (picture). This mixer however had the gears mounted vertically and not hidden in the lid and the cranking motion was also vertical. The paddle had four metal blades rather than two like the churns. The paddle also had a unique motion. Not only did it revolve on the shaft like the churns but it also rotated around the bottom of the jar at the same time it was spinning. These mixers came with a funnel and metering device to add oil to the mayonnaise and also had a small opening with a cover in the top. These mixers were actually patented a year before the churns. The inventor of these mixers was also Alonzo Warner and he was granted a patent for them on April 27, 1915.
Landers, Frary and Clark was a large company established in 1862. They introduced the Universal name for their products in the 1890's. The company produced many household products including bread makers, cake mixers, mayonnaise mixers, toasters, coffee percolators and ranges. In 1954 Landers, Frary and Clark purchased the Dazey Corporation and manufactured the Dazey red top butter churn with their Universal name on it. Landers, Frary and Clark also purchased the Taylor Churn Company. The company went out of business in 1965.
Click here to go to the page with Dazey red top butter churns.
The churns pictured above and below are all butter churns that originated in Europe. The two butter churns pictured above are German. The first is one liter and the second is a two liter butter churn. Many of these butter churns came to the United States when people immigrated. However we have seen catalogs were these churns were sold on the west coast of the United States. The Pacific Hardware and Steel Company of San Francisco listed the butter churn on the left in their catalog. Since San Francisco was a busy port city it must have been economical to import these churns. The wholesale price in the catalog was $2.25 for a one liter churn and $2.50 for a two liter churn.
We have seen a churn similar to the churn on the left, above with a paper label in English
called the Household Butter Machine and listing G.M.T. & Bro., New York as the importer. G.M.T. & Bro. stood for Gustav M. Thurnauer and his brother, Otto. The were based in New York, New York and imported kitchen items into the United States. The company dated from 1887 till about 1914. The label boasted of a new patented system and that 500,000 were in use. It claimed butter could be made in 4 to 10 minutes and indicated that the churns were from Germany. It seems unlikely but there must have been some profit in importing these churns from Germany to the United States and competing with churns produced here.
Many German butter churns have the hand hold and the large gear in the same plane, where as American butter churns usually have the hand hold perpendicular to the large gear. The jars are usually embossed on the base with the liter size. They usually came with a paper label and did not have embossing on the sides of the jar. The open center paddle on the one liter churn is a style seen on many German butter churns.
The butter churns pictured above are all Blow churns from England. The butter churn on the left is the oldest and the one on the right is the newest. One can see the evolution of these churns was very similar to the Dazey churn. They started with square jars and open gears, then the gears were enclosed and finally the jar changed to the tulip style.
The butter churn on the left has a logo embossed in an arch. In an arch at the top it says, BLOW BUTTER CHURN 3/30 and in two straight lines at the bottom of the jar it says, MADE IN ENGLAND and 3 IMPERIAL QUARTS. The lid on this churn did not have a screen to drain the buttermilk. The large gear had three spokes compared to the gears on Dazey churns which had four. A label from a box that contained one of these churns referred to it as The British Blow Butter Churn and stated that they were made in London, England. The label also said that the churns were available with wooden or metal beaters and came in 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 quart sizes.
The middle churn has the gears covered. The Blow covers were more of an egg shape rather than the symmetrical football shape of the Dazey covers. This churn is on a square jar embossed BLOW BUTTER CHURN 4/40 at the top of the circular embossing and MADE IN ENGLAND around the bottom of the circle. It is a four imperial quart size. It is the same height as the previous three quart churn but the width and depth are greater. The lid had holes drilled in it in a round shape to form a screen for draining off the buttermilk.
The last butter churn utilized a tulip shaped jar that was embossed on the base LR458 S2 BLOW CHURN MADE IN ENGLAND N40 UGB. The UGB embossing was the makers mark for United Glass Bottle Manufacturers Limited of London which produced the glass jar. It is also a four quart churn. The top is identical to the previous churn with holes punched in the lid to form a screen. Some of these butter churns will have blue gear covers rather than the red ones pictured here. The paper labels on some of these churns had the company as J. J. Blow LTD. Oldfield Works Chatsworth Road, Chesterfield.
These butter churns were made by the Culinary Manufacturing Company of Orange, New Jersey. Later advertisements showed the company being located in Newark, New Jersey. The insert that came with these churns called them the E. Z. Two Minute Combination Household Churn. They were endorsed by the Good Housekeeping Institute, Ladies Home Journal, Women's World and the New York Tribune Institute. They were advertised as being able to make butter in two minutes as well as merge milk and butter. Pictured from left to right are a one, two and four quart churn. Advertisements also listed a three quart size and one newspaper article mentioned a three gallon and five gallon size. A 1917 hardware catalog listed the prices as 85 cents for the one quart, $1.18 for the two quart, $1.65 for the three quart and $2.10 for the four quart. The glass jars are not embossed with the quart size. On the two and four quart butter churns the glass jars are embossed:
CULINARY MFG. CO.
The one quart jar has no embossing at all. The paddles on these butter churns are a wavy, single piece of seasoned white maple wood. The one quart has four holes drilled in it and the two and four quart size have six holes. The gears on these butter churns are not steel (a magnet will not stick to them) and one will often find these tops with the large gear broken.
The Crest churn and the Premier Two Minute Butter Machine in the picture below were also made by the Culinary Mfg. Co.
This is an assortment of small one quart butter churns. The first butter churn on the left is a Crest. The second butter churn is a Premier Two-Minute Butter Machine. An example with a paper label indicated it was made by the Culinary Mfg. Co. Later ads referred to the same churn as the Premier Two Minute Household Butter Churn. Some of the Premier Two-Minute Butter Machines are stamped PAT. APLD. FOR on the lid but we have never found a patent granted for this butter churn. These two butter churns are nearly identical except on the Crest the main gear is on the opposite side of the frame as the crank and on the Premier Two-Minute the main gear and the crank are on the same side of the frame. These butter churns have 2 gears driving the shaft to increase the gear ratio and the speed that the paddle rotates. Both butter churns were probably made by the Culinary Manufacturing Company of Orange, New Jersey. A two quart version of the Crest butter churn used a jar embossed Culinary Mfg. Co. Orange N.J. (the one quart jars are unmarked). The Premier Two-Minute Churn was listed in a catalog of Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company from the early 1920's. This company was a hardware wholesaler based in San Francisco, California. Their catalog listed these butter churns in 1, 2, 3 and 4 quart sizes. The prices were $1.67, $2.00, $2.75 and $3.50 respectively. They were advertised to positively make butter in two minutes and whip cream in one. We have seen references to the the Premier Two-Minute Butter Machine as early as 1914.
The next butter churn is embossed Buttercup Churn-Mixer. Unlike other butter churns that had the frame riveted to the lid this churn's frame and lid were all cast as one piece. This butter churn top is embossed with a June 30, 1930 patent date and was made to go on a one quart fruit jar. We believe this patent date may be an error as the U.S. Patent Office issued no patents on this date. There was a patent granted on June 10, 1930 to Virgil Pyle of Stockton, Missouri for a mixer or churn that was designed to be used on a screw cap fruit jar. We have seen an advertisement for the Buttercup Churn & Mixer sold by the Pyle-Roy Mixer Company of Stockton, Missouri and would assume that this patent went with this butter churn. Virgil Pyle partnered with his brother-in-law, Matthew Roy, to from the Pyle-Roy Mixer Company. There is also another churn made by the Pyle-Roy Mixer Company, however the city is Greenfield, Missouri. That churn also was made to go on a quart fruit jar but the lid was tin and the churn frame and gears were attached to it like other churns. On this churn the patent date is correctly marked as June 10, 1930. The paddles appear the same on both of these churns. A November 1933 catalog pictured the churn with the tin lid. This same catalog listed churns for quart or half gallon fruit jars, half gallon wide mouth jars, one gallon wide mouth jars or No. 10 syrup pails. The quart size churn pictured above without the fruit jar wholesaled for 73 cents in quantities of 12 with a suggested retail of $1.10. The Pyle-Roy Mixer Company only produced these churns for a short time, possibly for only 5 or 6 years after they received their patent.
The last butter churn on the right is a Presto churn. These were also made to go on a fruit or canning jar however the main shaft was adjustable in length to accommodate a 1 or 2 quart canning jar. The lid and the dasher are aluminum. The underside of the lid is stamped Presto. Sears sold this churn in their 1935-36 through 1942-43 catalogs although they referred to it as a Bargain Churn or low cost Churn and not a Presto. It did not come with a jar and the cost was 69 cents in the 1935-36 and 1942 catalogs although the price dropped to 54 cents in the 1941 catalog. A similar churn appeared in the 1940-41 Montgomery Ward catalog, sold for 58 cents and was called a Mason Jar Churn.
Here is another butter churn designed to be used on a fruit jar. In this case it was a half gallon fruit jar. The gear is embossed SCHMID BROS LANCASTER PA (Note: the spelling is Schmid and not Schmidt as reported in other references). There was a Schmid Bros. in Lancaster, Pennsylvania that was listed as a hardware dealer however we have not made a definite connection to this churn. The one unique feature of this butter churn was that the dasher shaft was not straight. As can be seen in the picture the shaft was bent so that the dasher blades moved around the outer edge of the jar as the crank was rotated. The dasher blades were metal.
The butter churn on the left is a two quart Gunn Manufacturing Co. churn made in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The jar is embossed only with the quart size and originally would have come with a paper label. The embossing on the jar is 2. QT with the period after the 2 rather than the QT like one would expect. We have only seen these butter churns in the two quart size. The crank arm is embossed: GUNN MFG. CO. PHILA. and the frame is embossed PAT. APPL'D. We have never been able to find if the patent was granted nor have we found any information on Gunn Manufacturing Company. The paddle on this butter churn is very heavy metal with four twisted fingers on each side.
The butter churn on the right was made by the Thomas Manufacturing Company of Dayton, Ohio. The jars on these churns had a horseshoe logo and edges similar to the Dazey beveled edge churns. The jar is embossed in an arch at the top THE THOMAS MFG. CO. and in a straight line underneath DAYTON, OHIO. There was no size embossed on the glass jar and four quart was the only size they were made in. This was a butter churn made with low cost in mind. The paddle was a single piece of hard wood with six holes drilled in it and it was held on to the shaft by a bent over cotter pin. Even the gear and the crank arm were locked to the shafts with cotter pins. The gear frame was painted black. The hand hold on the frame has a very square upper corner.
These churns were advertised as the "Instant" Butter-Maker. The ad promoted their use as a butter churn and butter merger as well as a cream and egg beater, a cake maker and and even an ice cream freezer when the churn was placed in a bucket of ice. The Thomas Manufacturing Company did not sell their churn in stores. Rather they were sold by local individuals or agents. The suggested retail price for the churn was $2.50 and an agent could purchase them for $1.50 individually or as cheap as $1.25 in lots of four dozen.
These are glass jar dash churns. The principle is the same as a stoneware dash churn, just on a smaller scale. The wood dasher is moved up and down until butter forms. Several companies sold this style of butter churn. Some companies just sold the wood lid and dasher and the customer supplied a gallon pickle jar or gallon milk bottle. Other churns, such as the butter churns shown above were sold as complete units.
The butter churn on the left was called the Home Buttermaker on the instructions. It was just a wide mouth gallon milk bottle with a wood lid and dasher. These milk bottles had a metal bail handle attached to glass ears on the bottle neck. The instructions for this butter churn did not list a manufacturer. These butter churns are seen quite often.
The butter churn on the right was called the Ole Fashund Mixer. The label claims it will churn butter, mix drinks and mash fruits and vegetables however the directions deal solely with churning butter. This churn was made by the Seven Mfg. Co. of Chicago, Illinois. It was basically a one gallon Hazel-Atlas jar that had threads for a screw cap. A wood lid was added that fit in the neck along with the dasher. It was a very simple butter churn that shows up now and then. This churn was advertised in 1943 for a dollar.
This was the Turn-A-Minit Churn. It was manufactured by the Turn-A-Minit Churn Company, Metropolitan Tower, New York. The majority of the advertisements for this butter churn are from 1910. The metal top was cast metal and was marked PAT. APP'D. FOR along with the company name. The glass jar is etched TURN A MINIT CHURN CO. NEW YORK. The jar had no threads. The lid set inside the lip of the jar on a rubber gasket and was held in place by a wire clip. The dasher was porcelain and advertisements from 1910 mentioned that it was patented. Some of the dashers are marked PAT. APPD. FOR. We suspect the patent for this dasher was granted to Ida Murphy of New York, New York on September 19, 1905. The glass jar was also advertised to have a rib that sped up the churning. This rib can be seen to the right of the dasher in the picture above. It kept the cream from just spinning in a circle since the jar was round (in a square jar the cream would hit the corners). The base of the jar was embossed in a spider web like pattern.
We have also seen this churn with a glass jar with embossing rather than etching (picture). We believe the etched version was earlier than the embossed version. The tops were the same on both jars. On the embossed jar the embossing reads TURN-A-MINIT CHURN CO. NEW YORK CITY.
We also have seen an advertising booklet that listed the manufacturer of these churns as the S. A. Ferry Co. of Newark, New Jersey. The way the booklet had New Jersey printed over New York we would assume that S. A. Ferry Company took over sales of the Turn-A-Minit churn from the Turn-A-Minit Churn Company. We have never seen one of the churns marked with that company's name however.
The churn pictured here was the one quart size and it sold for $2.50. They also advertised a gallon size churn with a porcelain jar instead of glass for $7.50. After July of 1910 the price on the one gallon jumped to 9 dollars. These churns came with a dairy thermometer to check the temperature of the cream. As with most churns that did not utilize wood dashers a main selling feature was its sanitary design. It was also geared very high. One turn of the crank would turn the dashers eight times. This was because the gear was so large. A Dazey churn would be geared between 3 or 4 to one. In addition to churning butter in one minute this churn was also advertised to make whip cream in 20 seconds and mayonnaise in 30 seconds. It was also advertised to the pharmacy trade as a tool for druggists to make medical preparations and emulsions.
This was the Mak-Mor Butter Machine. It was sold by the Mak-Mor Sales Company of New York City and was also advertised as a butter merger, mixing one pound of butter with one pound of milk to get two pounds of butter. The price was five dollars in 1911. This merger was patented on May 30, 1911 by Harold Brown of Stratford, Connecticut. Brown assigned his patent to Jay Lashar of Brooklyn, New York. This merger had two dashers that intermeshed. Each was turned in opposite directions so that the fingers of one passed through the spaces of the other. The jar held 2 quarts and was embossed with graduation scales for liquid, flour, brown sugar and gran. sugar. The lid had a sliding door to add ingredients or remove buttermilk. Obviously from the embossing on the jar the Mak-Mor was sold to be an all purpose mixer in addition to a butter machine.